Molly, a term that evokes images of music festivals and vibrant nightclubs, is more than just a party drug. It’s a substance that has danced on the edges of legality, therapy, and danger.
In the wake of an alarming incident at Wesleyan University, where 12 students suffered from poisoning, the conversation around Molly, or MDMA, has become ever more urgent. This article delves into the complex effects of Molly on the brain, exploring its potential for both harm and healing.
What is Molly?
Molly, scientifically known as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), is a synthetic drug that alters mood and perception. It’s closely related to other amphetamines but is distinguished by its ability to produce feelings of increased energy, pleasure, emotional warmth, and distorted sensory and time perception. Historically, MDMA was used by the US military for psychological warfare tests, and in the 1970s, it found brief use in psychotherapy settings, often enhancing communication during sessions.
The Euphoric Effects of Molly on Users
When Molly enters the system, users often report a rush of euphoria, a sense of intimacy with others, and a feeling of mental clarity. The drug achieves this by shifting attention towards positive experiences while minimizing negative feelings. It’s known for its “prosocial” effects, making users feel exceptionally friendly, loving, and connected to those around them.
However, Molly’s effects are not purely positive. The drug also impairs the recognition of negative emotions and the perception of social rejection. This altered state can lead to risky behaviors, as users may not accurately process hostility or danger in their environment.
Scientific Studies on Molly’s Psychological Effects
Research has sought to quantify and understand these anecdotal experiences. A 2012 study by Cedric Hysek found that MDMA users showed improved recognition of positive emotions but a decline in recognizing negative ones when using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). Further, studies by Kirkpatrick and colleagues in 2014, using the Morphed Facial Expression Task (mFER), found that MDMA reduced accuracy in identifying angry and fearful faces, but not happy ones. Another 2014 study demonstrated that MDMA users felt less bothered by social rejection, employing a virtual game known as “Cyberball” to measure these effects.
Functional MRI experiments have supported these findings, showing that MDMA activates the ventral striatum—an area of the brain associated with the process of reward and pleasure—and decreases the amygdala’s response to angry faces, which may explain the reduced perception of negative emotions.
Neurotransmitter and Hormone Alterations Due to Molly
The euphoric and emotional effects of Molly can be attributed to its influence on several neurotransmitters and hormones in the brain. Serotonin levels are known to surge, increasing sensitivity to music and lights, a common feature of the MDMA experience. Additionally, norepinephrine and dopamine contribute to the feelings of euphoria and heightened energy.
Another hormone, cortisol, is also affected; it decreases fatigue, allowing users to dance and socialize for extended periods. Perhaps most intriguing is the role of oxytocin, a hormone controversially linked to the desire to socialize and bond with others. While Kirkpatrick’s group found that MDMA increased blood oxytocin levels, it’s still unclear whether oxytocin alone is responsible for the prosocial effects of MDMA.
The Oxytocin Connection
The relationship between oxytocin and MDMA’s social effects is an area of active research. Although increased blood levels of oxytocin have been observed, it’s yet to be definitively proven that this hormone alone can produce the same effects as MDMA. This distinction is crucial as researchers explore the potential for oxytocin to mimic some of MDMA’s therapeutic effects without the associated risks.
MDMA as a Tool for Psychotherapy
Despite its controversial status, there’s a growing body of research suggesting MDMA could be a valuable tool in psychotherapy, particularly for treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). MDMA’s ability to make bad memories seem less vivid and increase feelings of safety and trust could help patients process traumatic events more effectively. Studies using functional MRI have shown that MDMA made patients’ favorite memories more vivid and their worst memories less negative, offering a glimpse into how MDMA could reshape traumatic memories.
Risks and Adulteration Concerns
The incident at Wesleyan University is a stark reminder of the dangers associated with Molly. The possibility of a “bad batch,” which may contain too high a dose or be adulterated with other substances, is a real and present danger. According to a testing service, only 39 percent of the pills tested were pure MDMA, and shockingly, half contained no MDMA at all. This unpredictability can lead to overdose and poisoning, as users may unknowingly consume substances far more dangerous than MDMA itself.
Personal Accounts and Direct Quotes
Users’ experiences with Molly can be illuminating. One user described the altered state as feeling more positive and ‘loving’ because of an impaired ability to process hostility. Another recounted that when reaching back for bad memories, they did not seem as severe, instead appearing as “fatalistic necessities for the occurrence of later good events.” These personal accounts highlight the profound impact MDMA can have on one’s perception of past and present experiences.
Testing and Safety
Given the risks of adulteration, testing Molly pills becomes a crucial step for harm reduction. Organizations and services offer a marquis reagent or testing kits and resources to ensure the substance’s purity, potentially saving lives by preventing the consumption of contaminated or dangerous products. Users are strongly advised to seek out such services to minimize the risks associated with MDMA use.
Legal Status and DEA Information
The legal status of MDMA remains clear—it is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), indicating a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use. The DEA has published extensive information on Molly, underscoring the risks and the legal ramifications of its use, possession, or distribution.
Molly’s effects on the brain are a complex interplay of euphoria, altered perception, and potential therapeutic benefits. However, these effects come with significant risks, including the possibility of consuming adulterated substances and the legal consequences of engaging with an illegal drug. As research continues to unfold, it is crucial to weigh the potential for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy against the backdrop of these risks. The future of MDMA, whether as a therapeutic tool or a recreational substance, will be shaped by ongoing scientific inquiry, legal debates, and the shared responsibility of communities to prioritize safety and informed use.
In the end, the story of Molly is one of duality—where the potential for healing resides alongside the potential for harm. It is a reminder that the substances we engage with can profoundly affect our brains and our lives. As we navigate the complexities of MDMA, let us do so with caution, curiosity, and a commitment to understanding the full scope of its impact on our minds and society.